Daunfeldt, S-O., Rudholm, N., & Rämme, U. (2013). Congestion charges in Stockholm: how have they affected retail revenues? Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 9(3), 259-268. DOI: 10.1080/18128602.2011.572570
Abstract: Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls – 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the toll area – and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analysed using an intervention-control approach. Favourable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.
Related content: Working Paper No. 134