Wennberg, K., Pathak, S., & Autio, E. (2013). How culture molds the effects of self efficacy and fear of failure for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(9-10), 756-780.
Abstract: We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness study for 42 countries to investigate how the effects of individual’s self-efficacy and of fear of failure on entrepreneurial entry are contingent on national cultural practices. Using multi-level methodology, we observe that the positive effect of self-efficacy on entry is moderated by the cultural practices of institutional collectivism and performance orientation. Conversely, the negative effect of fear of failure on entry is moderated by the cultural practices of institutional collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. We discuss the implications for theory and methodological development in culture and entrepreneurship.