Working Paper No. 134. Sven-Olov Daunfeldt, Niklas Rudholm and Ulf Rämme (2009). Congestion Charges in Stockholm: How Have They Affected Retail Revenues?
Abstract: Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls – 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the tool area – and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analyzed using an intervention-control approach. Favorable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide, and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.