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Demand Shocks and Labor Hoarding: Matching Micro Data

PublicationBook chapter
Arbetskraftsreserver, Arbetsmarknad, Glenn Mickelsson, Karolina Stadin, Makroekonomi, Mikrodata

Abstract

In Swedish firm-level data, output is more volatile than employment, and in response to demand shocks, employment follows output with a one- to two-year lag. To explain these observations, we use a model with labor hoarding in which firms can change production by changing the utilization rate of their employees. Matching the impulse response functions, we find that labor hoarding in combination with increasing returns to scale in production and a very high price stickiness can explain the empirical pattern very well. Increasing returns to scale implies a larger percentage change in output than in employment. Price stickiness amplifies volatility in output because the price has a dampening effect on demand changes. Both of these explain the delayed reaction in employment in response to output changes.

Mickelsson, G., & Stadin, K. (2016). Demand Shocks and Labor Hoarding: Matching Micro Data. In G. Mickelsson DSGE Model Estimation and Labor Market Dynamics (Doctoral dissertation). Economic Studies 163. Department of Economics, Uppsala University.

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Demand Shocks and Labor Hoarding: Matching Micro Data
BokkapitelPublication
Mickelsson, G., & Stadin, K.
Publication year

2016

Published in
Abstract

In Swedish firm-level data, output is more volatile than employment, and in response to demand shocks, employment follows output with a one- to two-year lag. To explain these observations, we use a model with labor hoarding in which firms can change production by changing the utilization rate of their employees. Matching the impulse response functions, we find that labor hoarding in combination with increasing returns to scale in production and a very high price stickiness can explain the empirical pattern very well. Increasing returns to scale implies a larger percentage change in output than in employment. Price stickiness amplifies volatility in output because the price has a dampening effect on demand changes. Both of these explain the delayed reaction in employment in response to output changes.

Startups, financing and geography – findings from a survey
Book chapterPublication
Bjuggren, P.-O., & Elmoznino Laufer, M.
Publication year

2018

Abstract

This chapter investigates the importance of bank loans for the financing of startups and how location matters for expansion plans and financing. The two main questions posed are: what does the financing of Swedish corporate startups look like, and how does location matter for expansion plans and financing? To provide answers to these questions, both survey data and registry data have been used. The survey data are from a questionnaire sent out to startups listed in the files of the Swedish Jobs and Society Foundation. We looked at corporations founded during the period 2009–2013 that are family firms in terms of ownership structure. The survey indicated that bank loans are rare. Essentially, the entrepreneur personally takes most of the business risk. Combining registry data with the qualitative data from the survey, we used regression analysis to study differences due to location. The regression analysis showed that the degree of urbanization matters for plans for expansion. In the three most urbanized areas, the startup firms had plans to expand their business both at home and abroad. In the other urbanized areas, the focus was on expansion at home.

Reaping Value from Digitalization in Swedish Manufacturing Firms
Book chapterPublication
Mähring, M., Wennberg, K., & Demir, R.
Publication year

2018

Abstract

Excerpt: In this chapter, we take a fresh look at what is actually happening in the area of digitalization, with a particular focus on the Swedish manufacturing sector. […] We particularly focus upon patterns in the ways in which they seek to develop innovations and explore new business models from their activities related to product sensors and wireless data, cloud-based data warehouses, computer-aided manufacturing and 3D printing, big data technologies, and application programming interfaces (APIs). Our findings suggest that while many Swedish industrial firms have developed a strong edge through a combination of high-quality products, international presence, and decentralization, the latter in particular poses challenges when it comes to digital transformation. Digitalization may necessitate large investments across business segments, standardisation, and knowledge sharing regarding both customers and digital solutions in order to create new customer offerings. Points for reflection are then discussed, along with recommendations for scholars that are seeking to develop new and relevant knowledge by studying the transformation of Swedish industry, as well as for managers seeking to benchmark their digitalization activities to others.

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