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Measuring business activity in the UK

PublicationBook chapter
Alex Coad, David J. Storey, Entreprenörskap, Företagandets villkor, Jobbskapande, Julian S. Frankish, Richard G. Roberts, Småföretagande, Tillväxt

Abstract

Extract: Since small businesses and enterprise were ‘discovered’ by public policy in the UK during the 1960s, commencing in earnest with the publication of the Bolton Committee (1971) report, there has been considerable official interest in this form of economic activity. The Conservative Government from 1979 to 1997 initially saw enterprise as a strategy for job creation but later switched to a focus on growth. The Labour Government after 1997 continued this ‘cross-party’ support, although it placed greater weight upon the potential role of enterprise to address wider issues of ‘social inclusion’, e.g. HM Treasury (1999), than its predecessor government. The election of a Conservative-led coalition in 2010, faced with a challenging macro-economic environment, meant that once again small businesses and enterprise creation were seen as playing a critical role in a UK economy seeking to emerge from recession (Greene, 2002; Greene et al., 2008).

Frankish, J., Roberts, R., Storey, D. J. & Coad, A. (2015). “Measuring business activity in the UK”. In J. R. Bryson, & P. W. Daniels (Eds.), Handbook of Service Business – Management, Marketing, Innovation and Internationalisation (pp. 146-169). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Measuring business activity in the UK
BokkapitelPublication
Frankish, J., Roberts, R., Storey, D. J. & Coad, A.
Publication year

2015

Abstract

Extract: Since small businesses and enterprise were ‘discovered’ by public policy in the UK during the 1960s, commencing in earnest with the publication of the Bolton Committee (1971) report, there has been considerable official interest in this form of economic activity. The Conservative Government from 1979 to 1997 initially saw enterprise as a strategy for job creation but later switched to a focus on growth. The Labour Government after 1997 continued this ‘cross-party’ support, although it placed greater weight upon the potential role of enterprise to address wider issues of ‘social inclusion’, e.g. HM Treasury (1999), than its predecessor government. The election of a Conservative-led coalition in 2010, faced with a challenging macro-economic environment, meant that once again small businesses and enterprise creation were seen as playing a critical role in a UK economy seeking to emerge from recession (Greene, 2002; Greene et al., 2008).

Tracking the Institutional Logics of the Sharing Economy
Book chapterPublication
Geissinger, A., Laurell, C., Öberg, C. & Sandström, C.
Publication year

2019

Abstract

With the radical growth in the ubiquity of digital platforms, the sharing economy is here to stay. This Handbook explores the nature and direction of the sharing economy, interrogating its key dynamics and evolution over the past decade and critiquing its effect on society.
Using an interdisciplinary perspective, this Handbook analyses labour, governance, trust and consumption in the contemporary sharing economy. It questions the apparent contradiction between its components: the moral economy of small-scale communal sharing versus the far-flung reaches of the market economy. Chapters explore ways to resolve this paradox, theorizing hybrid economic forms and considering the replacement of human trust inherent in the sharing economy with a transactional reputation economy. Featuring a variety of both conceptual explorations and empirical investigations in a variety of different cross-cultural contexts, this Handbook illustrates how and, more importantly, why the sharing economy has reshaped marketplaces, and will continue to disrupt them as it develops.
Written in an accessible style, this thorough Handbook offers crucial insights for researchers across a variety of disciplines interested in the trajectories of modern consumption and market development, as well as students studying the sharing economy. Practitioners, policy makers and public speakers working in and around the sharing economy will also benefit from this book’s unique analysis of trends in consumer and market economics.

Scandinavia: Refugees at work
Book chapterPublication
Joyce, P.
Publication year

2019

Published in
Abstract

Germany was the top destination country by far for refugees arriving in the years between 2014 and 2017. But much-smaller Sweden received more asylum applications in relation to its population. The other two Scandinavian countries – Norway and Denmark – also saw significant numbers of asylum seekers in relation to their small populations. Since then, Scandinavian countries have turned to the sizable task of integrating new arrivals into the labour market. Refugees have struggled to find work in the Scandinavian countries. Figure 1 shows the employment rate (per cent) among adult refugees in Sweden, Denmark and Norway by years after arrival in the host country. As shown in Figure 1 only between 20 and 35 per cent of male refugees are working two years after arrival. The share in work increases with each year after arrival but employment generally plateaus after ten to fifteen years, significantly below the employment rate among the overall population. Female refugees need more time than males to find work. They usually have less schooling than their male counterparts and often bear children after arrival.48 Employment among female refugees picks up after some time though.

Refugees have long faced several barriers to finding work in Scandinavia, including lower average levels of education than the domestic workforce, lack of host-country language skills, a limited professional network and discrimination.49 These challenges, combined with the large number of arrivals in 2015–16, increased the willingness of Scandinavian governments to promote faster tracks to employment. In Denmark large reforms of integration policies were introduced in 2016. This led to substantial improvements in labour market outcomes.

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