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Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer?

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Christian Sandström, Företagandets villkor, Innovation
Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer?
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Abstract

Svenskt välstånd har i hög grad byggt på banbrytande innovationer som ofta har blivit exportsuccéer. I en ny rapport har forskare sammanställt var 100 av Sveriges främsta innovationer genom tiderna har uppstått. Rapporten är framtagen av Reforminstitutet i samarbete på initiativ av Stockholms Innovatörskrets med stöd av Svenska Uppfinnareföreningen. Rapporten fastslår att av dessa innovationer har hela 80 procent skapats av uppfinnare genom anställning vid företag eller i egen verksamhet och att andelen uppfinningar härstammande från universitet och högskolor uppgår till endast 20 procent. Även andra studier visar att universitetens innovativa roll är liten.

Universiteten är dock viktiga inom medicin och hälsa där de står för hela 56 procent av innovationerna. I denna sektor är forskning av avgörande betydelse för innovationers uppkomst. Inom sektorer såsom verkstad, bygg, telekom och IT står privata företag och enskilda uppfinnare för mer än 90 procent av innovationerna. Rapportens slutsatser har implikationer för forsknings- och innovationspolitiken. Om en överväldigande majoritet av Sveriges innovationer skapats av enskilda uppfinnare/näringsidkare och individer anställda av företag bör den svenska innovationspolitiken fokusera på dessa aktörer i första hand. En politik som sätter universiteten i centrum för innovationsstrategier ger förmodligen begränsade resultat. En mer generell slutsats är också att svensk innovationspolitik behöver bli mer evidensbaserad och mindre styrd av politisk retorik.

Sandström, C. (2014). Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer? Rapport, Reforminstitutet och Svenska Uppfinnarföreningen.

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The non-disruptive emergence of an Ecosystem for 3D Printing
Article (with peer review)Publication
Sandström, C.
Publication year

2016

Abstract

3D Printing technologies have received extensive attention in recent years, but empirical investigations of how this technology is used for manufacturing are still sparse. More knowledge is also needed regarding how 3D Printing affects the competitive dynamics between firms. This article explores how 3D Printing has been adopted for manufacturing and discusses under what conditions it might influence competition in different industries. Drawing upon data from the global hearing aid industry’s adoption of 3D Printing during the period 1989-2008, this paper describes some of the benefits of using the technology, while also pointing out challenges firms encounter in making a transition. The study shows that early adopters were exposed to more technological uncertainty related to choosing printers. All firms encountered operational challenges as 3D Printing required new skill sets, but the technology had little impact on the competitive dynamics of this industry. Drawing upon literature on technological discontinuities, platforms and ecosystems, the paper illustrates and explains why the technology was not disruptive and also discusses how these findings apply to other industries where 3D Printing is currently gaining momentum.

The non-disruptive emergence of an Ecosystem for 3D Printing
Artikel (med peer review)Publication
Sandström, C.
Publication year

2016

Abstract

3D Printing technologies have received extensive attention in recent years, but empirical investigations of how this technology is used for manufacturing are still sparse. More knowledge is also needed regarding how 3D Printing affects the competitive dynamics between firms. This article explores how 3D Printing has been adopted for manufacturing and discusses under what conditions it might influence competition in different industries. Drawing upon data from the global hearing aid industry’s adoption of 3D Printing during the period 1989-2008, this paper describes some of the benefits of using the technology, while also pointing out challenges firms encounter in making a transition. The study shows that early adopters were exposed to more technological uncertainty related to choosing printers. All firms encountered operational challenges as 3D Printing required new skill sets, but the technology had little impact on the competitive dynamics of this industry. Drawing upon literature on technological discontinuities, platforms and ecosystems, the paper illustrates and explains why the technology was not disruptive and also discusses how these findings apply to other industries where 3D Printing is currently gaining momentum.

Ratio Working Paper No. 262: Adopting 3D Printing for manufacturing – The case of the hearing aid industry
Working paperPublication
Sandström, C.
Publication year

2015

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

3D Printing technologies have received extensive attention in recent years, but empirical investigations of how this technology is used for manufacturing are still sparse. More knowledge is also needed regarding how 3D Printing will affect the competitive dynamics between firms. This article explores how 3D Printing has been adopted for manufacturing and discusses under what conditions it might have disruptive effects for established firms. Drawing upon data from the global hearing aid industry’s adoption of 3D Printing during the period 1999-2007, this paper describes some of the benefits of using the technology, while also pointing out some of the challenges firms encounter in making this transition. The study shows that early adopters were exposed to more technological uncertainty related to choosing printers. All firms encountered operational challenges as 3D Printing required new skill sets, but the technology had little impact on the competitive dynamics of this industry. The paper also discusses how these findings apply to other industries where 3D Printing is currently emerging.

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