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Working Paper No. 188. Spatial Concentration in the Financial Industry

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Finanssektor, Företagandets villkor, Johanna Palmberg, Kunskap
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Abstract

This paper investigates factors that determine the spatial concentration in the financial industry. Why does the financial industry have such a high spatial concentration? The theoretical framework is based on theories from regional economics, with a focus on agglomeration effects, externalities, and the regional clustering of an industry. The positive agglomeration effects arise from access to i) specialized labor, ii) specialized suppliers, and iii) knowledge dispersion (Marshall 1920). Jacobs (1961, 1969) contributes to a discussion of the role of cities (urban economies) in terms of innovations and entrepreneurship. The high degree of spatial concentration in the financial sector emphasizes the importance of local embeddedness, networks, face-to-face communication, knowledge spillovers, and spatial proximity for the organization of the financial industry. These factors accentuate the importance of local knowledge and the dispersion of knowledge, factors that have been thoroughly discussed and analyzed in the field of Austrian economics. Therefore, an Austrian view is included to examine the role of knowledge in the spatial concentration of financial centers. Scholars such as Hayek (1937; 1945) and Lachmann (1978 [1956]) contribute to understanding the use of knowledge in society.

Related content: Spatial concentration in the financial industry

Palmberg, J. (2012). Spatial Concentration in the Financial Industry. Ratio Working Paper No. 188.

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Working Paper No. 188. Spatial Concentration in the Financial Industry
Working paperPublication
Palmberg, J.
Publication year

2012

Abstract

This paper investigates factors that determine the spatial concentration in the financial industry. Why does the financial industry have such a high spatial concentration? The theoretical framework is based on theories from regional economics, with a focus on agglomeration effects, externalities, and the regional clustering of an industry. The positive agglomeration effects arise from access to i) specialized labor, ii) specialized suppliers, and iii) knowledge dispersion (Marshall 1920). Jacobs (1961, 1969) contributes to a discussion of the role of cities (urban economies) in terms of innovations and entrepreneurship. The high degree of spatial concentration in the financial sector emphasizes the importance of local embeddedness, networks, face-to-face communication, knowledge spillovers, and spatial proximity for the organization of the financial industry. These factors accentuate the importance of local knowledge and the dispersion of knowledge, factors that have been thoroughly discussed and analyzed in the field of Austrian economics. Therefore, an Austrian view is included to examine the role of knowledge in the spatial concentration of financial centers. Scholars such as Hayek (1937; 1945) and Lachmann (1978 [1956]) contribute to understanding the use of knowledge in society.

Related content: Spatial concentration in the financial industry

Working Paper No. 187. The Performance Effects of Corporate Board of Directors
Working paperPublication
Palmberg, J.
Publication year

2012

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the board-member independence, family control, and financial performance in Swedish listed firms. The degree of independence is defined with respect to the principal owners, the management of the firm, and the employees. The definition of independence, as applied by the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance, together with good accessibility of detailed data on corporate governance variables, makes it possible to apply a precise measure of board-member independency. The analysis indicates that directors, dependent on the management of the firm dominates the board of director. Board-member independency is found positively affect a firm’s financial performance. The negative effect of board-member dependency originates from the firm-related directors whereas dependency on principal owners, families, and employees does not have any impact on the firm investment performance. The results are important in the contemporary political debate about the role of the board of directors as well as its composition. The analysis shows that the definition of independency is important when discussing the board of directors; directors, independent of the firm, not on principal owners, influence the firm investment performance positively.

Working Paper No. 187. The Performance Effects of Corporate Board of Directors
Working paperPublication
Palmberg, J.
Publication year

2012

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the board-member independence, family control, and financial performance in Swedish listed firms. The degree of independence is defined with respect to the principal owners, the management of the firm, and the employees. The definition of independence, as applied by the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance, together with good accessibility of detailed data on corporate governance variables, makes it possible to apply a precise measure of board-member independency. The analysis indicates that directors, dependent on the management of the firm dominates the board of director. Board-member independency is found positively affect a firm’s financial performance. The negative effect of board-member dependency originates from the firm-related directors whereas dependency on principal owners, families, and employees does not have any impact on the firm investment performance. The results are important in the contemporary political debate about the role of the board of directors as well as its composition. The analysis shows that the definition of independency is important when discussing the board of directors; directors, independent of the firm, not on principal owners, influence the firm investment performance positively.

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