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Working paper No. 226. Redirecting International Trade

PublicationWorking paper
Ari Kokko, Bengt Söderlund, Export, Företagandets villkor, Institutionell ekonomi, Internationell handel, Konflikter, Offshoring, Patrik Tingvall
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Abstract

The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions.

Related content: Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions

Kokko, A., Söderlund, B. & Gustavsson Tingvall, P. (2013). ”Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions”. Ratio Working paper No. 226.

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Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions
Article (with peer review)Publication
Kokko, A., Söderlund, B. & Gustavsson Tingvall, P.
Publication year

2014

Abstract

The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions.

Related content: Working paper No. 226

Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions
Artikel (med peer review)Publication
Kokko, A., Söderlund, B. & Gustavsson Tingvall, P.
Publication year

2014

Abstract

The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions.

Related content: Working paper No. 226

Ratio Working Paper No. 349: Industrial conflict in essential services in a new era – Swedish rules in a comparative perspective
Working paperPublication
Karlson, N.
Publication year

2021

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines whether the Swedish regulatory system of dealing with industrial conflicts that affect essential services need an update or reform. Are the existing rules effective in a world where many essential services are upheld by many interdependent agents in complex systems where every single node becomes critical for the functioning of the system, and where the essential service activities could be either private or public? A comparative study is conducted with the corresponding regulatory systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Denmark.
The conclusion is that Sweden is a special case. The Swedish protection against and readiness in dealing with societally harmful industrial conflicts in essential services is weaker than in the countries of comparison. Just as in relation to other threats to essential services, it is not sustainable to claim that just because such a threat is not currently present, there would be no need for preparedness.
There are many alternative ways to handle this. Desirable methods should both prevent harmful conflicts from erupting and end conflicts that have grown harmful to society at a later stage. The labour market organisations should have a mutual interest in reforming the rules.

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