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Working Paper No. 33. Financing Choices of Firms in EU Accession Countries

PublicationWorking paper
EU, Företagandets villkor, Kapitalstruktur, Leverage
Working Paper No. 33.
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Abstract

The paper presents evidence of actual and target capital structures of firms in five EU accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Estonia). We consider the financial constraints of private companies and compare the level of indebtedness and the determinants firms’ choices of capital structure in selected EU accession countries and EU countries. A dynamic nonlinear adjustment model is adopted to explicitly model the adjustment of a firm’s leverage to a target leverage.

Nivorozhkin, E. (2004). Financing Choices of Firms in EU Accession Countries. Ratio Working Paper No. 33.

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Working Paper No. 33. Financing Choices of Firms in EU Accession Countries
Working paperPublication
Nivorozhkin, E.
Publication year

2004

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

The paper presents evidence of actual and target capital structures of firms in five EU accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Estonia). We consider the financial constraints of private companies and compare the level of indebtedness and the determinants firms’ choices of capital structure in selected EU accession countries and EU countries. A dynamic nonlinear adjustment model is adopted to explicitly model the adjustment of a firm’s leverage to a target leverage.

Working Paper No. 33. Financing Choices of Firms in EU Accession Countries
Working paperPublication
Nivorozhkin, E.
Publication year

2004

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

The paper presents evidence of actual and target capital structures of firms in five EU accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Estonia). We consider the financial constraints of private companies and compare the level of indebtedness and the determinants firms’ choices of capital structure in selected EU accession countries and EU countries. A dynamic nonlinear adjustment model is adopted to explicitly model the adjustment of a firm’s leverage to a target leverage.

Ratio Working Paper No. 349: Industrial conflict in essential services in a new era – Swedish rules in a comparative perspective
Working paperPublication
Karlson, N.
Publication year

2021

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines whether the Swedish regulatory system of dealing with industrial conflicts that affect essential services need an update or reform. Are the existing rules effective in a world where many essential services are upheld by many interdependent agents in complex systems where every single node becomes critical for the functioning of the system, and where the essential service activities could be either private or public? A comparative study is conducted with the corresponding regulatory systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Denmark.
The conclusion is that Sweden is a special case. The Swedish protection against and readiness in dealing with societally harmful industrial conflicts in essential services is weaker than in the countries of comparison. Just as in relation to other threats to essential services, it is not sustainable to claim that just because such a threat is not currently present, there would be no need for preparedness.
There are many alternative ways to handle this. Desirable methods should both prevent harmful conflicts from erupting and end conflicts that have grown harmful to society at a later stage. The labour market organisations should have a mutual interest in reforming the rules.

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