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Working Paper No. 45. Making Regional Competence Blocs Attractive – On the Critical Role of Entrepreneurship and Firm Turnover in Regional Economic Growth

PublicationWorking paper
Experimentell ekonomi, Företagandets villkor, Globalisering, Gunnar Eliasson, Kompetensblock, Socialt kapital
Working Paper No. 45.
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Abstract

Radically new technology offers the prospect of a New and high productivity Economy for the industrially advanced economies. These opportunities are rapidly taken advantage of by innovative firms operating across national borders. Rapid globalization, therefore, makes the regional dimension of economic growth increasingly overshadow the national dimension. Economic transformation, furthermore, is also being pushed by a still ongoing (2003) severe recession , forcing previously successful firms to shed resources and making industrial assets available in the market at depressed prices. Technologies embodied in those assets are often globally mobile. Even large regions or nations, however, may lack a sufficiently broad commercialization competence to locally identify, capture and industrialize all free floating technologies. Hence, also previously prosperous regions may risk missing the boat to the New Economy, and history is full of such regional failures. Therefore, even large regional economies will depend on foreign investors, and policy authorities in many industrial regions have initiated policy races both to attract new resources and to shore up the outward flow that might otherwise occur through the intermediation of global companies. The outcome of all this may be the creation of other concentrations of excellence among the rich industrial economies than those created in the wake of the previous industrial revolution some 150 years ago. Being attractive for advanced investments is synonymous to being both internationally competitive and offering a rich supply of complementary industrial services to potential investors. The local capacity (receiver competence) to identify and locally commercialize technological spillovers is always more narrow than the supplies of technology. Competence bloc theory is used to explain and characterize the locally attractive attributes and to demonstrate how they can be enhanced through policy to attract global resources.The Lake Mälar/Baltic region in Sweden is used to clarify how policy action may stem the outward flow by making the region attractive for imports of industrial competence and inward investment emphasizing the need to import industrially competent venture capital to broaden the local receiver competence and to support local new firm establishement based on locally available technology. The Bavaria/Baden- Württemberg (B/W-W) region in Southern Germany is used to illustrate the opposite, namely a region that may possess the broad based capacity to locally reinvest in locally released technologies. For Sweden this amounts to a repeat of the 17th and 18th century industrial policy of Swedish kings to stimulate the foreign immigration of skilled labor, only that this time the purpose is to build new industry for economic growth, not to build an imperial war machine. The dramatic restructuring over markets in Sweden holds the promise, if succesful, to be more innovative than the B/B-W restructuring, but the Swedish case is more risky, not least because of a political unwillingness to introduce the necessary institutional reforms.

Eliasson, G. (2004). Making Regional Competence Blocs Attractive – On the Critical Role of Entrepreneurship and Firm Turnover in Regional Economic Growth. Ratio Working Paper No. 45.

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Working Paper No. 119. Advanced Purchasing, Spillovers, Innovative Pricing and Serendipitous Discovery
Working paperPublication
Eliasson, G.
Publication year

2008

Abstract

Advanced products such as aircraft distinguish themselves by a number of characteristics. Products are complicated and produced under very complicated circumstances, but also have a very long life. The purchase price, therefore, is a small part of total user cost of the product. Product value, hence, increases the more of cost efficient maintenance that has been built into the product and the easier it is to service and modernize. Advanced products also distinguish themselves by featuring the additional collective characteristic of a “cloud of technology spillovers” available to external users in proportion to their competence to commercialize them. While the value of that cloud to society may be greater than that of the product itself the value to the user may be much smaller. The producer, therefore, faces a tricky pricing problem and the value he can capture depends on his ability to charge for the dual product. I discuss joint production of products with rich spillovers in the context of joint customership, i.e. public purchasing of both products and the collective value generated by spillovers. I demonstrate that a win-win situation might exist between the two that improves with the commercial ability of the local economy to capture the value of the spillovers. Industrial participation programs can be made part of a sale to support the receiver competence of local producers to capture the spillover rents. Part of marketing the product, therefore, involves the ability to present a credible case for the economic value to society of the spillovers and to design a method of charging for them (Innovative pricing). A well designed, mutually beneficial contract should make both parties to the trade winners. This latter form of innovative pricing should be particularly attractive for developing countries. The theoretical argument is illustrated with the case of downstream industrial business formation around Swedish Aircraft industry.

Working Paper No. 119. Advanced Purchasing, Spillovers, Innovative Pricing and Serendipitous Discovery
Working paperPublication
Eliasson, G.
Publication year

2008

Abstract

Advanced products such as aircraft distinguish themselves by a number of characteristics. Products are complicated and produced under very complicated circumstances, but also have a very long life. The purchase price, therefore, is a small part of total user cost of the product. Product value, hence, increases the more of cost efficient maintenance that has been built into the product and the easier it is to service and modernize. Advanced products also distinguish themselves by featuring the additional collective characteristic of a “cloud of technology spillovers” available to external users in proportion to their competence to commercialize them. While the value of that cloud to society may be greater than that of the product itself the value to the user may be much smaller. The producer, therefore, faces a tricky pricing problem and the value he can capture depends on his ability to charge for the dual product. I discuss joint production of products with rich spillovers in the context of joint customership, i.e. public purchasing of both products and the collective value generated by spillovers. I demonstrate that a win-win situation might exist between the two that improves with the commercial ability of the local economy to capture the value of the spillovers. Industrial participation programs can be made part of a sale to support the receiver competence of local producers to capture the spillover rents. Part of marketing the product, therefore, involves the ability to present a credible case for the economic value to society of the spillovers and to design a method of charging for them (Innovative pricing). A well designed, mutually beneficial contract should make both parties to the trade winners. This latter form of innovative pricing should be particularly attractive for developing countries. The theoretical argument is illustrated with the case of downstream industrial business formation around Swedish Aircraft industry.

Working Paper No. 51. Managament in a New and Experimentally Organized Economy
Working paperPublication
Eliasson, G.
Publication year

2004

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

The parallel development of management theory and practice over three phases of economic development is surveyed; (1) the pre-oil crisis experience 1969-1975, (2) the post oil crisis sobering up through most of the 1990s and (3) the emergence of new global production organizations , blurring the notion of the firm to be managed. The external market circumstances of each period dictate different structures of business operations ; (a) a steady state and predictable environment, (b) crisis, inflation and disorderly markets and (c) new technology supporting a globally distributed production organization. As a consequence structural learning between the periods has been of limited value and often outright misleading. The influence of management theory on management practice and its origin in the received economic equilibrium model are discussed, and an alternative management theory based on the theory of the Experimentally Organized Economy (EOE) presented. The increased rate of failure among large firms is related to the increasing complexity of business decisions in globally distributed production and the decreased reliability of learning . It is concluded that successful management practice develops through experimentation in markets and that the best management education has been a varied career in many lines of business and in several companies.

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