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Working Paper No. 303: Subsidy Entrepreneurs

PublicationWorking paper
Anders Gustafsson, Daniel Halvarsson, Entreprenörskap, Företagandets villkor, Företagsstöd, Nationalekonomi, Patrik Tingvall
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Abstract

In this paper, we study the selection process and incentives of firms that apply for and eventually receive one or multiple governmental grants intended to stimulate innovation and growth in supported firms. The analysis departs from a rent-seeking model of heterogeneous entrepreneurs who are free to allocate their effort between production and rent-seeking. In equilibrium, highly productive entrepreneurs choose not to enter the rent-seeking contest altogether, and moderately productive entrepreneurs allocate a share of their effort both to rent-seeking and production, whereas low-productivity entrepreneurs are incentivized to allocate most, if not all, of their effort to seeking grants and can thus be called subsidy entrepreneurs. These firms also have a higher probability of receiving grants. Using detailed data over all grants administered by the three largest grant distributing agencies in Sweden, the empirical analysis suggests that supported firms tend to have relatively low productivity, higher wages, and a larger share of workers with higher education than do non-supported firms. These characteristics become more pronounced as we move from single to multiple supported firms, thus supporting the notion of subsidy entrepreneurs.

Gustafsson, A, Gustavsson Tingvall, P, Halvarsson, D. (2017). Subsidy Entrepreneurs. Ratio Working Paper No. 303. Stockholm: Ratio.

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Working Paper No. 303: Subsidy Entrepreneurs
Working paperPublication
Gustafsson, A, Gustavsson Tingvall, P, Halvarsson, D
Publication year

2017

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

In this paper, we study the selection process and incentives of firms that apply for and eventually receive one or multiple governmental grants intended to stimulate innovation and growth in supported firms. The analysis departs from a rent-seeking model of heterogeneous entrepreneurs who are free to allocate their effort between production and rent-seeking. In equilibrium, highly productive entrepreneurs choose not to enter the rent-seeking contest altogether, and moderately productive entrepreneurs allocate a share of their effort both to rent-seeking and production, whereas low-productivity entrepreneurs are incentivized to allocate most, if not all, of their effort to seeking grants and can thus be called subsidy entrepreneurs. These firms also have a higher probability of receiving grants. Using detailed data over all grants administered by the three largest grant distributing agencies in Sweden, the empirical analysis suggests that supported firms tend to have relatively low productivity, higher wages, and a larger share of workers with higher education than do non-supported firms. These characteristics become more pronounced as we move from single to multiple supported firms, thus supporting the notion of subsidy entrepreneurs.

Working Paper No. 303: Subsidy Entrepreneurs
Working paperPublication
Gustafsson, A, Gustavsson Tingvall, P, Halvarsson, D
Publication year

2017

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

In this paper, we study the selection process and incentives of firms that apply for and eventually receive one or multiple governmental grants intended to stimulate innovation and growth in supported firms. The analysis departs from a rent-seeking model of heterogeneous entrepreneurs who are free to allocate their effort between production and rent-seeking. In equilibrium, highly productive entrepreneurs choose not to enter the rent-seeking contest altogether, and moderately productive entrepreneurs allocate a share of their effort both to rent-seeking and production, whereas low-productivity entrepreneurs are incentivized to allocate most, if not all, of their effort to seeking grants and can thus be called subsidy entrepreneurs. These firms also have a higher probability of receiving grants. Using detailed data over all grants administered by the three largest grant distributing agencies in Sweden, the empirical analysis suggests that supported firms tend to have relatively low productivity, higher wages, and a larger share of workers with higher education than do non-supported firms. These characteristics become more pronounced as we move from single to multiple supported firms, thus supporting the notion of subsidy entrepreneurs.

Ratio Working Paper No. 349: Industrial conflict in essential services in a new era – Swedish rules in a comparative perspective
Working paperPublication
Karlson, N.
Publication year

2021

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines whether the Swedish regulatory system of dealing with industrial conflicts that affect essential services need an update or reform. Are the existing rules effective in a world where many essential services are upheld by many interdependent agents in complex systems where every single node becomes critical for the functioning of the system, and where the essential service activities could be either private or public? A comparative study is conducted with the corresponding regulatory systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Denmark.
The conclusion is that Sweden is a special case. The Swedish protection against and readiness in dealing with societally harmful industrial conflicts in essential services is weaker than in the countries of comparison. Just as in relation to other threats to essential services, it is not sustainable to claim that just because such a threat is not currently present, there would be no need for preparedness.
There are many alternative ways to handle this. Desirable methods should both prevent harmful conflicts from erupting and end conflicts that have grown harmful to society at a later stage. The labour market organisations should have a mutual interest in reforming the rules.

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