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Commercializing clean technology innovations: the emergence of new business in an agency-structure perspective

PublikationBokkapitel
Företagandets villkor, Innovation, Kommersialisering, Lars Coenen, Sofia Avdeitchikova, Teknologi

Sammanfattning

Clean technology is seen as indispensable to solve or at least abate an environmental/energy crisis without abandoning possibilities for progress and economic growth. This, however, does not imply that sustainable development can be readily achieved through a ‘technical fix’. Innovation and commercial introduction of new technology are inherently uncertain processes that fail more often than that they succeed. Studies on the commercialization of new technology in entrepreneurship literature have often struggled to explain why some new technologies reach markets while others do not, as well as why some technological solutions ultimately become industry standards while others quickly disappear from the market. Traditional technology commercialization models are linear, based on a technology-push logic and focus rather exclusively on micro-level issues such as characteristics of technology and product, entrepreneurial experience and access to resources. This chapter takes stock with a linear perspective to cleantech commercialization processes and, instead, suggests an alternative approach to analyze the entrepreneurial process of commercializing cleantech. In particular, this approach underlines the duality concerning structure and agency that entrepreneurs tend to encounter in the commercialization of cleantech. The objective of this chapter is to identify how agency and structure interplay in the process of commercializing cleantech. To do so, the chapter compares two literatures that each depart from different starting points. Whereas the institutional entrepreneurship literature often departs from the micro-level of individual or organizational action, the socio-technical transitions literature departs from a systems perspective on technological change. The contribution of the chapter lies in making explicit the agency-structure discussion in the different approaches in order to add to our understanding of cleantech as an emergent technological field and the role of entrepreneurs and/or entrepreneurship in shaping this field.

Avdeitchikova, S. & Coenen, L. (2015). “Commercializing clean technology innovations: the emergence of new business in an agency-structure perspective.” I P. Kryö (red.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research (s. 321-341). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Baserat på innehåll

Commercializing clean technology innovations: the emergence of new business in an agency-structure perspective
Book chapterPublikation
Avdeitchikova, S. & Coenen, L.
Publiceringsår

2015

Sammanfattning

Clean technology is seen as indispensable to solve or at least abate an environmental/energy crisis without abandoning possibilities for progress and economic growth. This, however, does not imply that sustainable development can be readily achieved through a ‘technical fix’. Innovation and commercial introduction of new technology are inherently uncertain processes that fail more often than that they succeed. Studies on the commercialization of new technology in entrepreneurship literature have often struggled to explain why some new technologies reach markets while others do not, as well as why some technological solutions ultimately become industry standards while others quickly disappear from the market. Traditional technology commercialization models are linear, based on a technology-push logic and focus rather exclusively on micro-level issues such as characteristics of technology and product, entrepreneurial experience and access to resources. This chapter takes stock with a linear perspective to cleantech commercialization processes and, instead, suggests an alternative approach to analyze the entrepreneurial process of commercializing cleantech. In particular, this approach underlines the duality concerning structure and agency that entrepreneurs tend to encounter in the commercialization of cleantech. The objective of this chapter is to identify how agency and structure interplay in the process of commercializing cleantech. To do so, the chapter compares two literatures that each depart from different starting points. Whereas the institutional entrepreneurship literature often departs from the micro-level of individual or organizational action, the socio-technical transitions literature departs from a systems perspective on technological change. The contribution of the chapter lies in making explicit the agency-structure discussion in the different approaches in order to add to our understanding of cleantech as an emergent technological field and the role of entrepreneurs and/or entrepreneurship in shaping this field.

Scandinavia: Refugees at work
BokkapitelPublikation
Joyce, P.
Publiceringsår

2019

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

Germany was the top destination country by far for refugees arriving in the years between 2014 and 2017. But much-smaller Sweden received more asylum applications in relation to its population. The other two Scandinavian countries – Norway and Denmark – also saw significant numbers of asylum seekers in relation to their small populations. Since then, Scandinavian countries have turned to the sizable task of integrating new arrivals into the labour market. Refugees have struggled to find work in the Scandinavian countries. Figure 1 shows the employment rate (per cent) among adult refugees in Sweden, Denmark and Norway by years after arrival in the host country. As shown in Figure 1 only between 20 and 35 per cent of male refugees are working two years after arrival. The share in work increases with each year after arrival but employment generally plateaus after ten to fifteen years, significantly below the employment rate among the overall population. Female refugees need more time than males to find work. They usually have less schooling than their male counterparts and often bear children after arrival.48 Employment among female refugees picks up after some time though.

Refugees have long faced several barriers to finding work in Scandinavia, including lower average levels of education than the domestic workforce, lack of host-country language skills, a limited professional network and discrimination.49 These challenges, combined with the large number of arrivals in 2015–16, increased the willingness of Scandinavian governments to promote faster tracks to employment. In Denmark large reforms of integration policies were introduced in 2016. This led to substantial improvements in labour market outcomes.

Startups, financing and geography – findings from a survey
BokkapitelPublikation
Bjuggren, P.-O., & Elmoznino Laufer, M.
Publiceringsår

2018

Sammanfattning

This chapter investigates the importance of bank loans for the financing of startups and how location matters for expansion plans and financing. The two main questions posed are: what does the financing of Swedish corporate startups look like, and how does location matter for expansion plans and financing? To provide answers to these questions, both survey data and registry data have been used. The survey data are from a questionnaire sent out to startups listed in the files of the Swedish Jobs and Society Foundation. We looked at corporations founded during the period 2009–2013 that are family firms in terms of ownership structure. The survey indicated that bank loans are rare. Essentially, the entrepreneur personally takes most of the business risk. Combining registry data with the qualitative data from the survey, we used regression analysis to study differences due to location. The regression analysis showed that the degree of urbanization matters for plans for expansion. In the three most urbanized areas, the startup firms had plans to expand their business both at home and abroad. In the other urbanized areas, the focus was on expansion at home.

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