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Exploring regional differences in the regional capacity to absorb displacements

PublikationBokkapitel
Företagandets villkor, Företagsnedläggning, Ingrid Ros, Kristina Nyström, Regional utveckling, Sysselsättning

Sammanfattning

Extract: Every year there is substantial turbulence in economies with respect to establishing new firms and business closures. Job displacement, i.e. an involuntary loss of jobs due to economic downturns or structural changes affects millions of workers each year. A recent cross-country comparison by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013) reveals that displacements affect 2–7 percent of employees every year. In the Swedish case, an average displacement rate of about 2 percent is reported for the time period 2000–2008. According to Tillvaxtanalys (2009)1 more than 100 000 Swedish employees lose their jobs annually due to business closures.2 Through the process of creative destruction, in which old and obsolete firms exit due to the entry of new and more productive firms, the resources used in the exiting firms are reallocated and possibly more efficiently used in the new firms. However, in some cases displaced workers are not able to find a new job, especially if, for example, the employee’s competences do not match the current demands in the labor market. Furthermore, the possibilities to find a new job after a closure may vary substantially depending on the regional conditions in the labor market. It may, for instance, be more difficult to find a new job after a business closure if the unemployment rate in the region is already high or if the displacement is connected to the closure of a locally dominant firm.

Nyström, K., & Viklund Ros, I. (2017). Exploring regional differences in the regional capacity to absorb displacements. In C. Karlsson, M. Andersson, & L. Bjerke (Eds.), Geographies of Growth (pp. 19-47). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI: 10.4337/9781785360602.00009


Liknande innehåll

The Effect of Marshallian and Jacobian Knowledge Spillovers on Jobs in the Solar, Wind and Energy Efficiency Sector
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Aldieri, L., Grafström, J., & Vinci, C. P.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Energies, 14(14), 4269.

Sammanfattning

The purpose of this paper is to establish if Marshallian and Jacobian knowledge spillovers affect job creation in the green energy sector. Whether these two effects exist is important for the number of jobs created in related fields and jobs pushed away in other sectors. In the analysis, the production efficiency, in terms of jobs and job spillovers, from inventions in solar, wind and energy efficiency, is explored through data envelopment analysis (DEA), based on the Malmquist productivity index, and tobit regression. A panel dataset of American and European firms over the period of 2002–2017 is used. The contribution to the literature is to show the role of the spillovers from the same technology sector (Marshallian externalities), and of the spillovers from more diversified activity (Jacobian externalities). Since previous empirical evidence concerning the innovation effects on the production efficiency is yet weak, the paper attempts to bridge this gap. The empirical findings suggest negative Marshallian externalities, while Jacobian externalities have no statistical impact on the job creation process. The findings are of strategic importance for governments who are developing industrial strategies for renewable energy.

Aldieri, L., Grafström, J., & Vinci, C. P. (2021). The Effect of Marshallian and Jacobian Knowledge Spillovers on Jobs in the Solar, Wind and Energy Efficiency Sector. Energies, 14(14), 4269.

En dynamisk arbetsmarknad
BokPublikation
Stern, L.
Publiceringsår

2019

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

Hur påverkas svensk arbetsmarknad av teknikutveckling, tjänstefiering, entreprenörskap och immigration? Hur väl förmår de institutionella villkoren i form av lagar, regler och skatter att hänga med?

Detta är temat för forskningsantologin En dynamisk arbetsmarknad.

En väl fungerande arbetsmarknad förutsätter ändamålsenliga villkor för medarbetare och arbetsgivare i syfte att uppmuntra utveckling, jobbskapande och tillväxt. I en föränderlig värld behöver dessa villkor utvecklas och förbättras.

Femton forskare i ekonomisk historia, företagsekonomi, nationalekonomi, sociologi och statsvetenskap analyserar de viktigaste omvärldsförändringarna och de lagar, regler och skatter som påverkar förutsättningarna på arbetsmarknaden. Studierna bygger på empiriska undersökningar och forskningssammanställningar, och syftet är att bidra till en välgrundad diskussion om framtiden för svensk arbetsmarknad.

Working for an entrepreneur: heaven or hell?
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Nyström, K.
Publiceringsår

2021

Sammanfattning

Recruiting employees to an entrepreneurial venture is a challenging task. From the employee’s perspective, accepting a position in an entrepreneurial venture potentially implies considerable uncertainty. This paper provide a literature review and identifies research gaps related to labor mobility of employees into and out of entrepreneurial firms. Who works for an entrepreneur? What are the conditions under which the employees of entrepreneurial firms work? Additionally, labor mobility after an employee works for an entrepreneurial firm is discussed. In conclusion, the quality of the jobs generated by entrepreneurial firms may be questionable (and still relatively unexplored in empirical research), but they are nevertheless important from a labor dynamic perspective. Better understanding about motives to work for an entrepreneur, issues related to job security beyond survival rates, and job quality may contribute to ease the recruitment problems that many entrepreneurial firms struggle with. Furthermore, the relevance and potential pros and cons of working for an entrepreneurial firm in future career paths (entrepreneur or employee) need to be carefully addressed in future research.

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