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No Gift and Inheritance Tax

PublikationArtikel (med peer review)
Arvsskatt, Familjeföretag, Företagandets villkor, Lars-Göran Sund, Per-Olof Bjuggren, Succession

Sammanfattning

Sweden abandoned the gift and inheritance tax in late 2004. One reason was that the government wished to enhance transfer of ownership of shares in family-owned businesses from the older to the younger generation and within the family. Anticipated outcomes of amendments in tax law are, however, not always fulfilled. This paper reports on a survey study of 143 Swedish small to medium-sized family businesses. The study is focused on companies and families that have carried out an intergenerational succession (some partly) during the lifetime of the older generation (127). Only in a few instances was the transfer of shares made in another way, i.e. six intestate inheritances and ten sales to an external person. According to the survey results abandoning the gift and inheritance tax is no quick .x. A succession within the family has still to be prepared and planned. Further, a transfer of the shares, for example to a daughter during the life time of the incumbent cannot always be made through a gift. The older generation may still require financial compensation in order to uphold their standard of living or compensate siblings who do not receive shares. A sale to a child at less than market value is still partly capital gains taxed. Even though having no gift and inheritance tax can be beneficial it nonetheless cannot produce miracles.
We conclude that more efforts should be made concerning taxation of intergenerational transfer of family-owned businesses, in order to smooth the process, which hopefully will also be recognized by the EU Commission in its recommendations.

Sund, L-G., & Bjuggren, P-O. (2013). No Gift and Inheritance Tax: No Problems Left for Succession of Family-Owned Businesses? European Business Law Review, 24(1), 149-159.

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No Gift and Inheritance Tax
Article (with peer review)Publikation
Sund, L-G., & Bjuggren, P-O.
Publiceringsår

2013

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

Sweden abandoned the gift and inheritance tax in late 2004. One reason was that the government wished to enhance transfer of ownership of shares in family-owned businesses from the older to the younger generation and within the family. Anticipated outcomes of amendments in tax law are, however, not always fulfilled. This paper reports on a survey study of 143 Swedish small to medium-sized family businesses. The study is focused on companies and families that have carried out an intergenerational succession (some partly) during the lifetime of the older generation (127). Only in a few instances was the transfer of shares made in another way, i.e. six intestate inheritances and ten sales to an external person. According to the survey results abandoning the gift and inheritance tax is no quick .x. A succession within the family has still to be prepared and planned. Further, a transfer of the shares, for example to a daughter during the life time of the incumbent cannot always be made through a gift. The older generation may still require financial compensation in order to uphold their standard of living or compensate siblings who do not receive shares. A sale to a child at less than market value is still partly capital gains taxed. Even though having no gift and inheritance tax can be beneficial it nonetheless cannot produce miracles.
We conclude that more efforts should be made concerning taxation of intergenerational transfer of family-owned businesses, in order to smooth the process, which hopefully will also be recognized by the EU Commission in its recommendations.

An Anatomy of Failure – Wind Power Development in China
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Grafström, J.
Publiceringsår

2021

Sammanfattning

China is currently the world’s largest installer of wind power. However, with twice the installed wind capacity compared to the United States in 2015, the Chinese produce less power. The question is: Why is this the case? This article shows that Chinese grid connectivity is low, Chinese firms have few international patents, and that export is low even though production capacity far exceeds domestic production needs. Using the tools of Austrian economics, China’s wind power development from 1980 to 2016 is documented and analyzed from three angles: (a) planning and knowledge problems, (b) unproductive entrepreneurship, and (c) bureaucracy and government policy. From a theoretical standpoint, both a planning problem and an entrepreneurial problem are evident where governmental policies create misallocation of resources and a hampering of technological development.

Spin-in and spin-out for growth – On the acquisition and divestiture of high-tech firms
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Öberg, C.
Publiceringsår

2021

Sammanfattning

Purpose: This paper describes and discusses company spin-ins and spin-outs as a means to understand company growth in a dynamic context. The following question is asked: How can growth be understood in spin-ins and spin-outs of innovative firms? The paper suggests return on capabilities as a measure to understand growth in an open innovation context.

Design/methodology/approach: The empirical part of the paper consists of a single case study. Data was captured through interviews and secondary data sources.

Findings: The paper points to that resources alone do not explain strategic decisions by a company and how spin-ins and spin-outs result from the need for capabilities, changes in business foci and temporary solutions to deal with overcapacities or lack of alternatives.

Originality/value: The paper contributes to research by discussing contemporary issues in strategy and innovation and relating them to the resource-based view and the growth of the firm. Spin-outs, and acquisitions and divestitures as interlinked events have rarely been focused on in the literature, while they remain frequent phenomena in practice.

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