International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: evidence from the European Union

PublikationArtikel (med peer review)
Företagandets villkor, Förnybar energi, Jonas Grafström, Patent, Spillovers, Uppfinning, Vindkraft


The purpose of this paper is to analyze the presence of international knowledge spillovers in the wind power sector. Specifically, the paper investigates whether successful invention efforts in one country, measured by way of granted wind power patent counts, have had positive effects on the neighboring countries’ abilities to generate patents of the same category. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office during the period 1978–2008 are used for the eight national technological leaders in the western European wind power sector. The few comprehensive wind power studies that exist have only found limited evidence of international knowledge spillovers. However, in this paper, we find that international spillovers are statistically significant determinants of a country’s wind power patenting outcomes. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the knowledge spillover effects are shown to become stronger with decreases in this distance. The results should have important policy implications, for example, for a national government when it comes to applying an investment strategy in wind power or, alternatively, free-riding on other countries’ invention efforts.

Grafström, J. (2018). International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: evidence from the European Union. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 27(3), 205-224. DOI: 10.1080/10438599.2017.1328778

Liknande innehåll

Ratio Working Paper No. 364: Invention and Diffusion in the Solar Power Sector
Working paperPublikation
Grafström, J., & Poudineh, R.


Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper Series


There is an increasing interest in policies that promote invention and diffusion in solar energy technologies. In this paper the question of how does support policies affect inventions and diffusion of solar PV technology and is the effect heterogeneous and counteracting is investigated. The policies investigated are Feed-in-tariffs, Public R&D stock and flow, Environmental tax, and Environmental Policy Stringency Index. A Schumpeterian technological development approach is utilized on a panel dataset covering 23 European countries between 2000 and 2019. Two econometric approaches are employed, a negative binomial regression model is used to assess inventions and a panel data fixed effect regression is used for the diffusion model. The empirical findings suggest that FITs, Public R&D stock and flow, Environmental tax and Environmental Policy Stringency Index have no statistically significant negative effect on either inventions or diffusion. In most cases for invention the policies had a statistically significant positive effect. Policy crowding out does not seem to have been present.

Government support to renewable energy R&D: drivers and strategic interactions among EU Member States
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Grafström, J., Söderholm, P., Gawel, E., Lehmann, P., & Strunz, S.


Publicerat i

Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 32(1), 1-24.


Although the climate challenge requires proactive policies that spur innovation in the renewable energy sector, various countries commit vastly different levels of support for renewable energy R&D. This paper addresses the question why this may be the case. Specifically, the objective is to analyse the determinants of government support to renewable energy R&D in the European Union (EU), and, in doing this, we devote particular attention to the question of whether the level of this support tends to converge or diverge across EU Member States. The investigation relies on a data set of 12 EU Member States and a bias-corrected dynamic panel data estimator. We test for the presence of conditional β-convergence, and the impacts of energy dependence and electricity regulation on government R&D efforts. The findings display divergence in terms of government support to renewable energy R&D, and this result is robust across various model specifications and key assumptions. The analysis also indicates that countries with a low energy-import dependence and deregulated electricity markets tend to experience lower growth rates in government renewable energy R&D. The paper ends by discussing some implications of the results, primarily from an EU perspective.

The article can be accessed here.

Det gröna teknikundret.
Grafström, J.


Publicerat i

Gustafsson, E. (Red.). Grön Kapitalism. Timbro.


Är kapitalismen en orsak till klimat- och miljö- problemen? Eller kan fria marknader tvärtom vara en del av lösningen? Klimatförändringar och miljöförstöring hör till vår tids ödesfrågor. Men vilken roll spelar egentligen staten och kapitalet i klimatomställningen? På vilket sätt kan äganderätt rädda haven? Hur kan genmodifierade grödor öka vår motståndskraft mot klimatförändringar? Och hur kommer det sig att frihandel kan vara grönare än närproducerat?

I Grön kapitalism besvaras dessa och många andra frågor av några av Sveriges främsta opinionsbildare, näringslivsföreträdare och forskare. Tillsammans visar de hur innovation, teknik, fria marknader och träff säker politik kan minska såväl klimatutsläpp som annan miljöförstöring – utan att mänsklighetens framsteg hindras. Med texter av Joakim Broman, Runar Brännlund, Jonas Grafström, Ellen Gustafsson, Edvard Hollertz, Payam Moula, PM Nilsson, Johan Norberg, Maria Sunér och Mattias Svensson.

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