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Ratio Working Paper No. 318: Trademarks and Appropriability in the Digital Era – Evidences from Swedish Video Games Industry

PublikationWorking paper
Appropriability, Bengt Domeij, Digitalization, Innovation, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), Vicky Long, Video Games
Ratio Working Paper No. 318
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Sammanfattning

What role can trademark play in appropriability regime, especially in a digitalized era where many innovations are easy to copy and difficult to protect, and where rapid diffusion is the norm? This study, using the Swedish video games industry as a case, aims to provide some insights and tentative answers to those questions. Combining firm-level interviews, statistical data concerning EUIPO trademarks filed by the Swedish video games industry, we present the quantitative trends of trademarking across this industry sector (i.e. timeline; distribution across technological platforms and firm sizes; correlation with turnover), as well as qualitative explanations for that. This study contributes to a meso-level explanation of the role of trademarks (registrations) in appropriability on the one hand, and to the understanding of the complexity of the general appropriability conditions (and logic) in the Digital Era, on the other.

Long, V. & Domeij, B. (2019). Trademarks and Appropriability in the Digital Era – Evidences from Swedish Video Games Industry. Ratio Working Paper no. 318. Stockholm: Ratio.


Liknande innehåll

Third-Generation Innovation Policy: System Transformation or Reinforcing Business as Usual?
BokkapitelPublikation
Bergkvist, J. E., Moodysson, J., & Sandström, C.
Publiceringsår

2022

Publicerat i

Questioning the Entrepreneurial State, 201.

Sammanfattning

There has been a shift in innovation policy in recent years toward more focus on systemic transformation and changed directionality. In this chapter, we describe a collection of challenges that such policies need to address. Based on a review of dominant frameworks regarding socio-technical transitions, we compare these theories with examples of innovation policy in different countries. Systemic transformation across an economy usually requires a process of creative destruction in which new competencies may be required, actors need to be connected in novel ways, and institutions may need to be changed. Our empirical illustrations show that support programs and initiatives across Europe do not always seem to result in such a process, as they include mechanisms favoring large, established firms and universities. These actors have often fine-tuned their activities and capabilities to the existing order, and therefore have few incentives to engage in renewal. As the incumbent actors also control superior financial and relational resources, there is a risk that they captivate innovation policies and thus reinforce established structures rather than contributing to systemic transformation.

Profiting from Innovation in the Digital Era: Evidence from the Swedish Videogames Industry
BokkapitelPublikation
Long, V.
Publiceringsår

2020

Sammanfattning

We know that firms use multiple appropriability means: intellectual property rights (IPRs), trade secrecy, market lead-time, and this varies significantly between industry sectors. We, however, do not know how and to what extent the appropriability regime are modified in response to digitalization and open innovation. This study aims to fill in that gap, through a study of the Swedish games industry. Applying a well-established framework — Profiting from Innovation — to the digital context, this study collects primary data from semi-structured (firm) interviews, a survey and combining the statistical data from the branch organization and from EUIPO trademark database. It has been identified that: (a) this is an industry re-entering into a fluid phase of innovation with a rapid growth of products and (small) firms; (b) the value chains are transforming into value networks and the complementary assets are to be reassessed; and (c) trademarks are gaining importance and a Demsetz-ian path of internalization of IPs is pursued. Digitalization re-defines the key pillars of the PFI framework in many respects.

Long, V. (2020). Profiting from innovation in the digital era: Evidence from the Swedish videogames industry. In Managing Digital Open Innovation (pp. 141-175).

Technological Change and Industrial Transformation
BokPublikation
Long, V. & Holmén, M.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

Industrial transformation is a research and teaching field with a focus on the phenomenon and mechanisms of industrial development and renewal. It concerns changes in economic activities caused by innovation, competition and collaboration, and has a rich heritage of evolutionary economics, institutional economics, industrial dynamics, technology history and innovation studies. It borrows concepts and models from the social sciences (sociology, history, political sciences, business/management, economics, behavioural sciences) and also from technology and engineering studies.
In this book, the authors present the key theories, frameworks and concepts of industrial transformation and use empirical cases to describe and explain the causes, processes and outcomes of transformation in the context of digitalization and sustainability. They stress that industrial transformation consists both of Darwinian “survival of the fittest” selection, and of intentional pursuits of innovation, and of industrial capabilities creation. The work argues that managing the global trends of transformation is not only about new technology and innovation: existing institutional settings and dynamic interactions between technological change, organizational adaptation and economic activities also have a profound impact on future trajectories.
The areas under investigation are of great relevance for strategic management decisions and industrial and technology policies, and understanding the mechanisms underlying transformation and sustainable growth.

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