Servicification of Firms and Trade Policy Implications

PublikationArtikel (med peer review)
Företagandets villkor, Handelspolitik, Internationell handel, Magnus Lodefalk, Tjänstefiering


In the OECD countries, the decline of manufacturing and the employment implications have long been matters of concern. Recently, policymakers in several countries have set out to try and achieve reindustrialization. The servicification of firms is related to these concerns and aspirations. However, servicification, and particularly its role in trade policy, has received limited attention. I review micro-level evidence and discuss its implications. I find that imported, domestic and exported services are all important to contemporary firm competitiveness and participation in international value chains. Therefore, historic policymaking divisions between trade in manufactures and trade in services services, between export and import interests, and among modes of supply are becoming less relevant. I conclude by suggesting potential steps forward.

Lodefalk, M. (2017). Servicification of Firms and Trade Policy Implications. World Trade Review, 16(1), 59-83. DOI: 10.1017/S147474561600029X

Liknande innehåll

Ratio Working Paper No. 359: Stayin’ Alive: Export Credit Guarantees and Export Survival
Working paperPublikation
Lodefalk, M., Tang, A. & Yu, M.


Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper.


We use survival analysis to analyse the impact of export credit guarantees on firms’ export duration using granular Swedish panel data at the firm-country and firm-country-product levels. The estimation results show that firms’ export survival substantially increases with guarantees, at both levels. The associations are particularly strong for smaller firms and contracts as well as in trade with riskier markets. The findings have implications for policies to promote long-run export growth.

International trade and labour market integration of immigrants
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Lodefalk, M., Sjöholm, F., & Tang, A.




We examine whether international trade improves labour market integration of immigrants in Sweden. Immigrants participate substantially less than natives in the labour market. However, trading with a foreign country is expected to increase the demand for immigrants from that country. By hiring immigrants, a firm may access foreign knowledge and networks needed to overcome information frictions in trade. Using granular longitudinal matched employer–employee data and an instrumental variable approach, we estimate the causal effects of a firm’s bilateral trade on employment and wages of immigrants from that country. We find a positive, yet heterogeneous, effect of trade on immigrant employment but no effect on immigrant wages.

Read all of the article here.

Visa fler

Ratio är ett fristående forskningsinstitut som forskar om hur företagandets villkor kan utvecklas och förbättras.

Sveavägen 59 4trp

Box 3203

103 64 Stockholm

Bankgiro: 512-6578