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Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer?

PublikationRapporter
Christian Sandström, Företagandets villkor, Innovation
Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer?
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Sammanfattning

Svenskt välstånd har i hög grad byggt på banbrytande innovationer som ofta har blivit exportsuccéer. I en ny rapport har forskare sammanställt var 100 av Sveriges främsta innovationer genom tiderna har uppstått. Rapporten är framtagen av Reforminstitutet i samarbete på initiativ av Stockholms Innovatörskrets med stöd av Svenska Uppfinnareföreningen. Rapporten fastslår att av dessa innovationer har hela 80 procent skapats av uppfinnare genom anställning vid företag eller i egen verksamhet och att andelen uppfinningar härstammande från universitet och högskolor uppgår till endast 20 procent. Även andra studier visar att universitetens innovativa roll är liten.

Universiteten är dock viktiga inom medicin och hälsa där de står för hela 56 procent av innovationerna. I denna sektor är forskning av avgörande betydelse för innovationers uppkomst. Inom sektorer såsom verkstad, bygg, telekom och IT står privata företag och enskilda uppfinnare för mer än 90 procent av innovationerna. Rapportens slutsatser har implikationer för forsknings- och innovationspolitiken. Om en överväldigande majoritet av Sveriges innovationer skapats av enskilda uppfinnare/näringsidkare och individer anställda av företag bör den svenska innovationspolitiken fokusera på dessa aktörer i första hand. En politik som sätter universiteten i centrum för innovationsstrategier ger förmodligen begränsade resultat. En mer generell slutsats är också att svensk innovationspolitik behöver bli mer evidensbaserad och mindre styrd av politisk retorik.

Sandström, C. (2014). Var skapades Sveriges 100 främsta innovationer? Rapport, Reforminstitutet och Svenska Uppfinnarföreningen.


Liknande innehåll

Assessing user perceptions of the interplay between the sharing, access, platform and community‐based economies
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Geissinger, A., Laurell, C., Öberg, C., Sandström, C. & Suseno, Y.
Publiceringsår

2020

Sammanfattning

Purpose
Digitally intermediated peer-to-peer exchanges have accelerated in occurrence, and as a consequence, they have introduced an increased pluralism of connotations. Accordingly, this paper aims to assess user perceptions of the interplay between the sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies.

Design/methodology/approach
The sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies have been systematically tracked in the social media landscape using Social Media Analytics (SMA). In doing so, a total material of 62,855 publicly posted user-generated content concerning the four respective economies were collected and analyzed.

Findings
Even though the sharing economy has been conceptually argued to be interlinked with the access, platform, and community-based economies, the empirical results of the study do not validate this interlinkage. Instead, the results regarding user perceptions in social media show that the sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies manifest as clearly separated.

Originality/value
This paper contributes to existing literature by offering an empirical validation, as well as an in-depth understanding, of the sharing economy’s interlinkage to other economies, along with the extent to which the overlaps between these economies manifest in social media.

Working Paper no. 331: Bureaucrats or Markets in Innovation Policy? – A critique of the entrepreneurial state
Working paperPublikation
Karlson, N., Sandström, C. & Wennberg, K.
Publiceringsår

2020

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

This paper takes stock of recent suggestions that the state apparatus is a central and underappreciated actor in the generation, diffusion and exploitation of innovations enhancing growth and social welfare. We contrast such a view of “the entrepreneurial state” with theories and empirical evidence of the microeconomic processes of innovation in the modern economy which focus on well-functioning markets, free entry and competition among firms, and independent entrepreneurship as central mechanisms in the creation and dissemination of innovations. In doing so, we identify several deficiencies in the notion of an entrepreneurial state by showing that (i) there is weak empirical support in the many hundreds empirical studies and related meta analyses evaluating the effectiveness of active industrial and innovative policies, that (ii) these policies do not take account of the presence of information and incentive problems which together explain why attempts to address purported market failures often result in policy failures, and that (iii) the exclusive focus on knowledge creation through R&D and different forms of firm subsidies ignores the equally important mechanisms of knowledge dissemination and creation through commercial exploitation in markets. We discuss how a more theoretically well-founded focus on the state as investing in knowledge generation and securing the conditions of free and competitive markets will lead to a more innovative economy.

Digitalization and the future of Management Learning: New technology as an enabler of historical, practice-oriented, and critical perspectives in management research and learning
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Laurell, C., Sandström, C., Eriksson, K., & Nykvist, R.
Publiceringsår

2020

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

How are historical, practice-oriented, and critical research perspectives in management affected by digitalization? In this article, we describe and discuss how two digital research approaches can be applied and how they may influence the future directions of management scholarship and education: Social Media Analytics and digital archives. Our empirical illustrations suggest that digitalization generates productivity improvements for scholars, making it possible to undertake research that was previously too laborious. It also enables researchers to pay closer attention to detail while still being able to abstract and generalize. We therefore argue that digitalization contributes to a historical turn in management, that practice-oriented research can be conducted with less effort and improved quality and that micro-level data in the form of digital archives and online contents make it easier to adopt critical perspectives.

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