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Working Paper No. 119. Advanced Purchasing, Spillovers, Innovative Pricing and Serendipitous Discovery

PublikationWorking paper
Företagandets villkor, Gunnar Eliasson, Innovation, Kompetensblock, Spillovers
Working Paper No. 119.
Ladda ner

Sammanfattning

Advanced products such as aircraft distinguish themselves by a number of characteristics. Products are complicated and produced under very complicated circumstances, but also have a very long life. The purchase price, therefore, is a small part of total user cost of the product. Product value, hence, increases the more of cost efficient maintenance that has been built into the product and the easier it is to service and modernize. Advanced products also distinguish themselves by featuring the additional collective characteristic of a “cloud of technology spillovers” available to external users in proportion to their competence to commercialize them. While the value of that cloud to society may be greater than that of the product itself the value to the user may be much smaller. The producer, therefore, faces a tricky pricing problem and the value he can capture depends on his ability to charge for the dual product. I discuss joint production of products with rich spillovers in the context of joint customership, i.e. public purchasing of both products and the collective value generated by spillovers. I demonstrate that a win-win situation might exist between the two that improves with the commercial ability of the local economy to capture the value of the spillovers. Industrial participation programs can be made part of a sale to support the receiver competence of local producers to capture the spillover rents. Part of marketing the product, therefore, involves the ability to present a credible case for the economic value to society of the spillovers and to design a method of charging for them (Innovative pricing). A well designed, mutually beneficial contract should make both parties to the trade winners. This latter form of innovative pricing should be particularly attractive for developing countries. The theoretical argument is illustrated with the case of downstream industrial business formation around Swedish Aircraft industry.

Eliasson, G. (2008). Advanced Purchasing, Spillovers, Innovative Pricing and Serendipitous Discovery. Ratio Working Paper No. 119.


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Ratio Working Paper No. 351: Knowledge Spillovers in the Solar energy sector
Working paperPublikation
Grafström, J.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Ratio.

Sammanfattning

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the existence and possible direction of international knowledge spillovers in the solar energy sector. Specifically, the paper investigates how the accumulation of solar energy patents and public R&D spending affected the output of domestic granted solar energy patents. The econometric analysis relies on a data set consisting of most of the OECD countries plus China and analyzes two time periods; from 1990 to 2014 and the years 2000 to 2014. To analyze the data material, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method was used. The empirical findings suggest that the domestic accumulation of patents and R&D is important for the potential development of new ones. Indeed, early investment in specific technology can be an indicator of future leadership in that field.

Assessing user perceptions of the interplay between the sharing, access, platform and community‐based economies
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Geissinger, A., Laurell, C., Öberg, C., Sandström, C. & Suseno, Y.
Publiceringsår

2020

Sammanfattning

Purpose
Digitally intermediated peer-to-peer exchanges have accelerated in occurrence, and as a consequence, they have introduced an increased pluralism of connotations. Accordingly, this paper aims to assess user perceptions of the interplay between the sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies.

Design/methodology/approach
The sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies have been systematically tracked in the social media landscape using Social Media Analytics (SMA). In doing so, a total material of 62,855 publicly posted user-generated content concerning the four respective economies were collected and analyzed.

Findings
Even though the sharing economy has been conceptually argued to be interlinked with the access, platform, and community-based economies, the empirical results of the study do not validate this interlinkage. Instead, the results regarding user perceptions in social media show that the sharing, access, platform, and community-based economies manifest as clearly separated.

Originality/value
This paper contributes to existing literature by offering an empirical validation, as well as an in-depth understanding, of the sharing economy’s interlinkage to other economies, along with the extent to which the overlaps between these economies manifest in social media.

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Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Karlson, N., Sandström, C., & Wennberg, K.
Publiceringsår

2020

Sammanfattning

This paper takes stock of recent suggestions that the state apparatus is a central and underappreciated actor in the generation, diffusion and exploitation of innovations enhancing growth and social welfare. We contrast such a view of “the entrepreneurial state” with theories and empirical evidence of the microeconomic processes of innovation in the modern economy which focus on well-functioning markets, free entry and competition among firms, and independent entrepreneurship as central mechanisms in the creation and dissemination of innovations. In doing so, we identify several deficiencies in the notion of an entrepreneurial state by showing that (i) there is weak empirical support in the many hundreds empirical studies and related meta analyses evaluating the effectiveness of active industrial and innovative policies, that (ii) these policies do not take account of the presence of information and incentive problems which together explain why attempts to address purported market failures often result in policy failures, and that (iii) the exclusive focus on knowledge creation through R&D and different forms of firm subsidies ignores the equally important mechanisms of knowledge dissemination and creation through commercial exploitation in markets. We discuss how a more theoretically well-founded focus on the state as investing in knowledge generation and securing the conditions of free and competitive markets will lead to a more innovative economy.

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