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Working Paper No. 30. America’s Toll Roads Heritage: The Achievements of Private Initiative in the 19th Century

PublikationWorking paper
Daniel Klein, Företagandets villkor, Privatisering, Regleringar, Vägtullar
Working Paper No. 30.
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Sammanfattning

Private toll roads shaped and accommodated trade and migration routes, leaving social and political imprints on the communities that debated and supported them. Private road building came and went in waves throughout the 19th century and across the country. All told, between 2,500 and 3,200 companies successfully financed, built, and operated their toll road. Although most of these roads operated for only a fraction of the 100+ period, the combined mileage of private toll roads that operated at any point in time would be in range of 30,000 to 52,000 miles. The paper explores the character, methods, and purposes of the private toll roads, and draws lessons for the privatization of highways today.

Klein, D. & Majewski, J. (2003). America’s Toll Roads Heritage: The Achievements of Private Initiative in the 19th Century. Ratio Working Paper No. 30.

Baserat på innehåll

Ratio Working Paper No. 349: Industrial conflict in essential services in a new era – Swedish rules in a comparative perspective
Working paperPublikation
Karlson, N.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

This paper examines whether the Swedish regulatory system of dealing with industrial conflicts that affect essential services need an update or reform. Are the existing rules effective in a world where many essential services are upheld by many interdependent agents in complex systems where every single node becomes critical for the functioning of the system, and where the essential service activities could be either private or public? A comparative study is conducted with the corresponding regulatory systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Denmark.
The conclusion is that Sweden is a special case. The Swedish protection against and readiness in dealing with societally harmful industrial conflicts in essential services is weaker than in the countries of comparison. Just as in relation to other threats to essential services, it is not sustainable to claim that just because such a threat is not currently present, there would be no need for preparedness.
There are many alternative ways to handle this. Desirable methods should both prevent harmful conflicts from erupting and end conflicts that have grown harmful to society at a later stage. The labour market organisations should have a mutual interest in reforming the rules.

Ratio Working Paper No. 348: Regional collaboration to enhance recruitment to rural regions
Working paperPublikation
Nyström, K.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

The purpose of this paper is to study how municipalities work at the regional level with issues concerning skills shortages and recruitment. What information channels are used to obtain information about these shortcomings? How and with whom do the municipalities collaborate? This study provides a mapping of how collaboration between employers, regional policymakers, and other institutions works with regional recruitment. As such, this study provides important information and possible inspiration. The empirical findings obtained based on a survey targeted to the business sections in Swedish municipalities suggest that companies in rural regions turn to municipalities to a greater extent than companies in non-rural municipalities in regard to skills shortages and recruitment. In addition, it is perceived that there is a higher degree of cooperation between businesses and local politicians in regard to recruitment in rural municipalities compared to other municipalities. Even cooperation to develop competence at the regional level is thought to take place to a greater extent in rural municipalities than in non-rural municipalities.

Ratio Working Paper No. 348: Regional collaboration to enhance recruitment to rural regions
Working paperPublikation
Nyström, K.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

The purpose of this paper is to study how municipalities work at the regional level with issues concerning skills shortages and recruitment. What information channels are used to obtain information about these shortcomings? How and with whom do the municipalities collaborate? This study provides a mapping of how collaboration between employers, regional policymakers, and other institutions works with regional recruitment. As such, this study provides important information and possible inspiration. The empirical findings obtained based on a survey targeted to the business sections in Swedish municipalities suggest that companies in rural regions turn to municipalities to a greater extent than companies in non-rural municipalities in regard to skills shortages and recruitment. In addition, it is perceived that there is a higher degree of cooperation between businesses and local politicians in regard to recruitment in rural municipalities compared to other municipalities. Even cooperation to develop competence at the regional level is thought to take place to a greater extent in rural municipalities than in non-rural municipalities.

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