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Ratio Working Paper No. 253: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities on Business Angel Investments

PublikationWorking paper
Affärsänglar, Alexander Hjertström, Entreprenörskap, Företagandets villkor, Johannes Herrmann, Nyföretagande, Sofia Avdeitchikova, Start-ups
Ratio Working Paper no 253
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Sammanfattning

Business angels are a vital source of capital for innovative startup firms. However, even of those startups that have the potential to fulfill angel investors’ expected return on investment, most are rejected during the angel’s investment decision process. Information asymmetry, risk and distrust in the relationship between the investor and the entrepreneur result in investment barriers. The concept of proximity has been proposed as a suitable conceptual foundation to understand how the relationship between angel and entrepreneur might hinder or benefit the investment decision. Particularly, researchers distinguish between functional (geographical) and relational dimensions of proximity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of proximity on business angel investments. We do this based on data from 226 investment situations gathered in fall 2014 from 56 business angels and 87 entrepreneurs in Sweden and analyzed using a state-of-the-art Structural Equation Modelling technique. We find that the investment decision is partially determined by the functional proximity of investor and entrepreneur, when observed in isolation. Our results furthermore support conceptual studies in the field of business angels that have hypothesized a mediating effect of relational proximity in this relationship. Based on the empirical analysis in this study, we find this effect to be fully mediating.

Related content: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities

Hermann, J., Hjertström, A. & Avdeitchikova, S. (2015). The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities on Business Angel Investments. Ratio Working Paper No. 253.

Baserat på innehåll

Ratio Working Paper No. 253: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities on Business Angel Investments
Working paperPublikation
Hermann, J., Hjertström, A. & Avdeitchikova, S.
Publiceringsår

2015

Sammanfattning

Business angels are a vital source of capital for innovative startup firms. However, even of those startups that have the potential to fulfill angel investors’ expected return on investment, most are rejected during the angel’s investment decision process. Information asymmetry, risk and distrust in the relationship between the investor and the entrepreneur result in investment barriers. The concept of proximity has been proposed as a suitable conceptual foundation to understand how the relationship between angel and entrepreneur might hinder or benefit the investment decision. Particularly, researchers distinguish between functional (geographical) and relational dimensions of proximity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of proximity on business angel investments. We do this based on data from 226 investment situations gathered in fall 2014 from 56 business angels and 87 entrepreneurs in Sweden and analyzed using a state-of-the-art Structural Equation Modelling technique. We find that the investment decision is partially determined by the functional proximity of investor and entrepreneur, when observed in isolation. Our results furthermore support conceptual studies in the field of business angels that have hypothesized a mediating effect of relational proximity in this relationship. Based on the empirical analysis in this study, we find this effect to be fully mediating.

Related content: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities

Ratio Working Paper No. 253: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities on Business Angel Investments
Working paperPublikation
Hermann, J., Hjertström, A. & Avdeitchikova, S.
Publiceringsår

2015

Sammanfattning

Business angels are a vital source of capital for innovative startup firms. However, even of those startups that have the potential to fulfill angel investors’ expected return on investment, most are rejected during the angel’s investment decision process. Information asymmetry, risk and distrust in the relationship between the investor and the entrepreneur result in investment barriers. The concept of proximity has been proposed as a suitable conceptual foundation to understand how the relationship between angel and entrepreneur might hinder or benefit the investment decision. Particularly, researchers distinguish between functional (geographical) and relational dimensions of proximity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of proximity on business angel investments. We do this based on data from 226 investment situations gathered in fall 2014 from 56 business angels and 87 entrepreneurs in Sweden and analyzed using a state-of-the-art Structural Equation Modelling technique. We find that the investment decision is partially determined by the functional proximity of investor and entrepreneur, when observed in isolation. Our results furthermore support conceptual studies in the field of business angels that have hypothesized a mediating effect of relational proximity in this relationship. Based on the empirical analysis in this study, we find this effect to be fully mediating.

Related content: The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities

Ratio Working Paper No. 349: Industrial conflict in essential services in a new era – Swedish rules in a comparative perspective
Working paperPublikation
Karlson, N.
Publiceringsår

2021

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

This paper examines whether the Swedish regulatory system of dealing with industrial conflicts that affect essential services need an update or reform. Are the existing rules effective in a world where many essential services are upheld by many interdependent agents in complex systems where every single node becomes critical for the functioning of the system, and where the essential service activities could be either private or public? A comparative study is conducted with the corresponding regulatory systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Denmark.
The conclusion is that Sweden is a special case. The Swedish protection against and readiness in dealing with societally harmful industrial conflicts in essential services is weaker than in the countries of comparison. Just as in relation to other threats to essential services, it is not sustainable to claim that just because such a threat is not currently present, there would be no need for preparedness.
There are many alternative ways to handle this. Desirable methods should both prevent harmful conflicts from erupting and end conflicts that have grown harmful to society at a later stage. The labour market organisations should have a mutual interest in reforming the rules.

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