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Ratio Working Paper No. 255: Startups, Financing and Geography– Findings from a survey

PublikationWorking paper
Ekonomisk geografi, Financing of Innovations, Företagandets villkor, Företagsekonomi, Michel Elmoznino Laufer, Per-Olof Bjuggren, Start-ups
Ratio Working Paper No. 255
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Sammanfattning

This paper investigates the importance of bank loans for the financing of startups and how location matters for expansion plans and financing. We will show that there has not been sufficient attention paid to legal form when distinguishing between the external and internal financing of startups. The focus will be on the corporate form of business and the implications of this legal form for what can be considered external financing. In the analysis of how location matters, we will draw upon the literature about agglomeration and knowledge spillovers.

The two main questions posed are: How does the corporate form matter for what can be considered the external financing of startups, and how does location matter for expansion plans and financing? To provide empirical answers to these questions, both survey data and registry data have been used.

The survey data are from a questionnaire sent out to startups listed in the files of the Swedish Jobs and Society Foundation. We looked at corporations founded during the period 2009-2013 that family firms in terms of ownership structure. The survey indicated that bank loans are rare and had to be backed up with personal assets used as collateral and personal guarantees of repayment for the majority of the firms who had used bank loans. Essentially, the entrepreneur personally takes most of the business risk. Bank loans have, to a large extent, the character of internal financing.

Combining registry data with the qualitative data from the survey, we used regression analysis to further study differences due to location. The regression analysis showed that the degree of urbanization matters for plans for expansion. In the three most urbanized areas, the startup firms had plans to expand their business both at home and abroad. In the other urbanized areas, the focus was on expansion at home.

Bjuggren, P-O. & Elmoznino Laufer, M. (2015). Startups, Financing and Geography– Findings from a survey. Ratio Working Paper No. 255.


Liknande innehåll

Bureaucrats or Markets in Innovation Policy? – a critique of the entrepreneurial state
Artikel (med peer review)Publikation
Karlson, N., Sandström, C., & Wennberg, K.
Publiceringsår

2020

Sammanfattning

This paper takes stock of recent suggestions that the state apparatus is a central and underappreciated actor in the generation, diffusion and exploitation of innovations enhancing growth and social welfare. We contrast such a view of “the entrepreneurial state” with theories and empirical evidence of the microeconomic processes of innovation in the modern economy which focus on well-functioning markets, free entry and competition among firms, and independent entrepreneurship as central mechanisms in the creation and dissemination of innovations. In doing so, we identify several deficiencies in the notion of an entrepreneurial state by showing that (i) there is weak empirical support in the many hundreds empirical studies and related meta analyses evaluating the effectiveness of active industrial and innovative policies, that (ii) these policies do not take account of the presence of information and incentive problems which together explain why attempts to address purported market failures often result in policy failures, and that (iii) the exclusive focus on knowledge creation through R&D and different forms of firm subsidies ignores the equally important mechanisms of knowledge dissemination and creation through commercial exploitation in markets. We discuss how a more theoretically well-founded focus on the state as investing in knowledge generation and securing the conditions of free and competitive markets will lead to a more innovative economy.

Working Paper no. 331: Bureaucrats or Markets in Innovation Policy? – A critique of the entrepreneurial state
Working paperPublikation
Karlson, N., Sandström, C. & Wennberg, K.
Publiceringsår

2020

Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper

Sammanfattning

This paper takes stock of recent suggestions that the state apparatus is a central and underappreciated actor in the generation, diffusion and exploitation of innovations enhancing growth and social welfare. We contrast such a view of “the entrepreneurial state” with theories and empirical evidence of the microeconomic processes of innovation in the modern economy which focus on well-functioning markets, free entry and competition among firms, and independent entrepreneurship as central mechanisms in the creation and dissemination of innovations. In doing so, we identify several deficiencies in the notion of an entrepreneurial state by showing that (i) there is weak empirical support in the many hundreds empirical studies and related meta analyses evaluating the effectiveness of active industrial and innovative policies, that (ii) these policies do not take account of the presence of information and incentive problems which together explain why attempts to address purported market failures often result in policy failures, and that (iii) the exclusive focus on knowledge creation through R&D and different forms of firm subsidies ignores the equally important mechanisms of knowledge dissemination and creation through commercial exploitation in markets. We discuss how a more theoretically well-founded focus on the state as investing in knowledge generation and securing the conditions of free and competitive markets will lead to a more innovative economy.

Bureaucrats or Markets in Innovation Policy?
BokPublikation
Sandström, C., Wennberg, K. & Karlson, N.
Publiceringsår

2019

Publicerat i
Sammanfattning

How can innovation best be promoted? Based on a major interdisciplinary research program
with a special focus on Sweden, paired with international research, this book shows that targeted
interventions and firm subsidies do not have the intended effects but instead creates policy failures,
government waste and rent-seeking.

Instead, innovation policy should focus on supplying the right competencies and on improving the
institutions of the market economy and the general
conditions for enterprise.

Markets rather than bureaucrats are decisive for
innovation, industrial development and growth.

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