Working paper No. 285: The Impact of ICT and E-Commerce Activities on Employment in Europe

PublikationWorking paper
Arbetsmarknad, Martin Falk
Ladda ner


This study presents new empirical evidence regarding the impact of ICT/e-commerce activities on labour demand. The data is based on new and unique data for 10 European countries for the period 2002-2010. A key feature of the empirical analysis is the use of several types of advanced ICT activities, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems,mobile internet access, and e-commerce practices. The main result of the study is that the increase in ICT/e-commerce activities over time has not led to a decline in jobs. This holds true for both manufacturing and service industries, as well as for SMEs and large firms. For ERP systems and websites, there is some evidence of positive effects. These findings do not support the hypothesis that ICT utilization is leading to labour substitution overall. In fact, ICT activities appear to be rather neutral to employment. The results are robust not only to the model specification, but also the estimation method applied.

Biagi, F. & Falck, M. (2017). The Impact of ICT and E-Commerce Activities on Employment in Europe. Ratio Working Paper No. 285. Stockholm: Ratio.

Liknande innehåll

Ratio Working Paper No. 350: A quickly transforming labour market
Working paperPublikation
Uddén Sonnegård, E.


Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper


The Covid-19 pandemic has made it clear that the labour market situation can change
extremely rapidly when there is an unexpected exogenous shock to the economy. Even
though the transformation of the labour market as a result of the development of ICT
(Information Communication Technology) industries facilitates more-flexible
conditions, it is now more important than ever for EU Member States to improve the
functioning of their labour markets. Member States need to increase possibilities for
training and retraining throughout peoples’ working lives in order to smooth the
transformation into a digital world of work.

Den svenska modellens framtid
Karlson, N., Stern, C. & Uddén Sonnegård, E.


Publicerat i

Kommer den svenska arbetsmarknadsmodellen att klara av de utmaningar som globaliseringen, digitaliseringen och utvecklingen av artificiell intelligens för med sig? Kan den hantera den åldrande befolkningen och den allt större aktiviteten från EU:s sida på arbetsmarknadsområdet?

I denna bok diskuteras vad aktuell forskning har att säga om dessa frågor. Den svenska modellen utvärderas utifrån fyra kriterier: konkurrenskraft, utvecklingskraft, kompetensförsörjning och ett inkluderande samhälle.

En slutsats är att den svenska arbetsmarknadsmodellen har betydande problem. Några av dem kommer inifrån modellen själv, medan andra kommer utifrån. Samtidigt har modellen stora fördelar som är väl värda att bevara och utveckla. Men för att hantera utmaningarna är reformer nödvändiga. För både arbetsmarknadens parter och politiker bör den långsiktiga ambitionen vara att stärka förmågan till kontinuerlig utveckling.

Boken kan beställas här.

Ratio Working Paper No. 341: Recruitment of scarce competences to rural regions: Policies to promote recruitment
Working paperPublikation
Nyström, K.


Publicerat i

Ratio Working Paper


This paper studies the perceived difficulty of recruiting scarce competences to rural regions. Furthermore, the role of policy in facilitating and enhancing recruitment to and better skills matching in rural regions is discussed. Based on a survey targeted to the business sections in Swedish municipalities, the results show that recruitment is perceived to be difficult in both rural and non-rural regions. However, recruitment problems in the public sector are more pronounced in rural municipalities. Nevertheless, recruitment to the public and business sectors are perceived to be equally difficult in rural regions. Both rural municipalities and non-rural municipalities state that the difficulty of recruiting the right skills results in a lack of skills matching and constitutes an obstacle to growth. Which policies can help remedy recruitment problems in rural regions? The pecuniary incentive of writing off student debt is perceived to be the most promising policy, but respondents also believe that non-pecuniary support such as relocation support for accompanying persons and tandem recruitment should be implemented to a greater extent. Finally, the need for flexibility and policies that can be adapted to the regional demand for labour are stressed. This regards for example the adaption of education programmes to local needs and rules and regulations.

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