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Working Paper No. 13. Institutionerna, företagandet och tillväxten

PublicationWorking paper
Dan Johansson, Entry, Företagandets villkor, Institutionell ekonomi, Magnus Henrekson, Size distribution of firms, Småföretag, Småföretagstillväxt
Working Paper No. 13.
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Abstract

Utgångspunkten i denna uppsats är att ekonomisk tillväxt och allmänt välstånd kan betraktas som ett resultat av att kunskap om hur nya och bättre varor och tjänster kan produceras allt effektivare byggs upp och tas i bruk. Detta sker inom ramen för kompetensblock, vilka definierar den minsta mängd av individer med olika men kompletterande kompetenser som krävs för att effektivt generera och kommersialisera ny kunskap. I kompetensblocket ingår bl.a. entreprenörer, industrialister och kompetenta venturekapitalister. Samhällets spelregler – dess institutioner – har avgörande betydelse för effektiviteten i denna process av kunskapsbildning och kunskapsanvändning, bl.a. genom dess effekter på företag av olika ålder, storlek, bransch och ägartillhörighet. I det följande identifierar vi för det första lagar och regler som kan förväntas ha negativ effekt på etableringen och tillväxten av nya och små företag. För det andra diskuterar vi de förväntade effekterna av dessa lagar och regler på kompetensblockets funktion. Vi ger också en rad belägg för att förnyelsen av svenskt näringsliv och den ekonomiska tillväxten, hämmats p.g.a. brist på nya, små och snabbt växande företag. I vår analys konstaterar vi att detta orsakas av i) höga och snedvridande skatter; ii) arbetsmarknadsregleringar och iii) begränsningar av näringsfriheten, främst inom den offentliga sektorn.

Henrekson, M. & Johansson, D. (2002). Institutionerna, företagandet och tillväxten. Ratio Working Paper No. 13.

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Working Paper No. 150. Firm Growth, Institutions and Structural Transformation
Working paperPublication
Henrekson, M. & Johansson, D.
Publication year

2010

Abstract

This essay argues that the economic contribution of certain firms – be they small, young or rapidly growing – has to be understood in a broader context of creative destruction. Growth of some firms requires contraction and exit of some other firms to free up resources that can be reallocated to expanding firms. Entry and expansion are flip sides to exit and contraction and the process through which the factors of production are put into different use defines structural transformation. We analyze institutions and policies conducive to structural transformation, in particular the expansion of high-growth firms (HGFs), since they have empirically been shown to contribute disproportionately to economic development. Firm growth is viewed as resulting from the continuous discovery and use of productive knowledge. Rapid firm growth requires a set of economic actors with complementary competencies that work together to identify and commercialize novel business ideas. The institutional framework determines the incentives for these individuals to acquire and utilize knowledge. We identify a number of institutions that encourage the creation of HGFs and promote structural transformation. In particular, our analysis points to the key roles played by tax structures, labor market regulation, and the contestability of service markets. Even in advanced economies, there is a large untapped economic potential which can be unleashed by institutional changes, such as the opening up of closed markets for entrepreneurial competition. However, there is no “quick-fix” that will boost the frequency of HGFs and structural transformation. Our analysis suggests that policymakers need to adopt a broad approach and implement a wide array of complementary institutional reforms to increase the prevalence of HGFs and to facilitate structural transformation.

Related content: Firm growth, institutions, and structural transformation

Working Paper No. 150. Firm Growth, Institutions and Structural Transformation
Working paperPublication
Henrekson, M. & Johansson, D.
Publication year

2010

Abstract

This essay argues that the economic contribution of certain firms – be they small, young or rapidly growing – has to be understood in a broader context of creative destruction. Growth of some firms requires contraction and exit of some other firms to free up resources that can be reallocated to expanding firms. Entry and expansion are flip sides to exit and contraction and the process through which the factors of production are put into different use defines structural transformation. We analyze institutions and policies conducive to structural transformation, in particular the expansion of high-growth firms (HGFs), since they have empirically been shown to contribute disproportionately to economic development. Firm growth is viewed as resulting from the continuous discovery and use of productive knowledge. Rapid firm growth requires a set of economic actors with complementary competencies that work together to identify and commercialize novel business ideas. The institutional framework determines the incentives for these individuals to acquire and utilize knowledge. We identify a number of institutions that encourage the creation of HGFs and promote structural transformation. In particular, our analysis points to the key roles played by tax structures, labor market regulation, and the contestability of service markets. Even in advanced economies, there is a large untapped economic potential which can be unleashed by institutional changes, such as the opening up of closed markets for entrepreneurial competition. However, there is no “quick-fix” that will boost the frequency of HGFs and structural transformation. Our analysis suggests that policymakers need to adopt a broad approach and implement a wide array of complementary institutional reforms to increase the prevalence of HGFs and to facilitate structural transformation.

Related content: Firm growth, institutions, and structural transformation

Working Paper No. 123. Competencies and Institutions Fostering High-growth Firms
Working paperPublication
Henrekson, M. & Johansson, D.
Publication year

2008

Abstract

High-growth firms (HGFs) are critical for net job creation and economic growth. We analyze HGFs using the theory of competence blocs, linking firm growth to property rights and the interaction of complementary expertise. Specifically, we discuss how the institutional framework affects the prevalence and performance of HGFs. Firm growth is viewed as resulting from the perpetual discovery and use of productive knowledge. A key element in this process is the competence bloc, a nexus of economic actors with complementary competencies that are vital in order to generate and commercialize novel ideas. The institutional framework determines the incentives for these individuals to acquire and utilize knowledge. We identify a number of institutions that foster the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs. In particular, our analysis points to the pivotal roles played by tax structures, labor market regulation, and the contestability of currently closed service markets. Finally, we characterize institutions beneficial for sclerotic or dynamic capitalism, respectively, depending on whether they provide a favorable environment for the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs.

Related content: Competencies and Institutions Fostering High-growth Firms

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