Search

Ratio Working Paper No. 200. Economic Freedom and Institutional Convergence

PublicationWorking paper
Daniel Halvarsson, Ekonomisk frihet, Företagandets villkor, Institutionell ekonomi, Niklas Elert
Ratio Working Paper No. 200
Download

Abstract

Francis Fukuyama argues that liberal democracy is the final form of human government and will become more and more prevalent in the long term. If this prediction is true, countries should converge in their political and economic systems toward liberal democracy, a form of institutional convergence. In this paper, we examine whether there is convergence in economic institutions, drawing on the literatures of economic convergence and of industrial organization. We use the Economic Freedom of the World-index over the period 1970-2009 to proxy for economic institutions. Our results indicate that countries with lower institutional quality experience faster institutional change than countries with higher quality, i.e., we observe institutional convergence. But countries with lower institutional quality have higher variability of institutional change. Using distributional analysis, we examine institutional transition probabilities, and find that the probability of a country ending up with high-quality institutions is high in the long-run. These findings support Fukuyama’s prediction.

Elert, N. & Halvarsson, D. (2012). Economic Freedom and Institutional Convergence. Ratio Working Paper No. 200.


Similar content

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Asymmetric Double Type II Pareto Distributions
Article (with peer review)Publication
Halvarsson, D.
Publication year

2020

Abstract

This paper considers a flexible class of asymmetric double Pareto distributions (ADP) that allows for skewness and asymmetric heavy tails. The inference problem is examined for maximum likelihood. Consistency is proven for the general case when all parameters are unknown. After deriving the Fisher information matrix, asymptotic normality and efficiency are established for a restricted model with the location parameter known. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are then examined using Monte Carlo simulations. To assess its goodness of fit, the ADP is applied to companies’ growth rates, for which it is favored over competing models.

Working Paper no. 328 Wholesale firms: A catalyst for Swedish exports?
Working paperPublication
Daunfeldt, S-O., Engberg, E., Halvarsson, D., Kokko, A. & Tingvall, P.
Publication year

2019

Published in

Ratio Working Paper

Abstract

This paper examines the role of wholesale firms as facilitators of exports for small and medium-sized Swedish businesses. Our findings suggest that wholesale firms do facilitate access to difficult markets located outside Europe. For exports of a particular good to a given market, we observe a positive correlation between the export volumes of wholesale and manufacturing firms. Finally, we present evidence that supports a prediction from recent trade models with differentiated firms, namely that wholesale firms can facilitate exports for firms that are not themselves capable of direct exports.

Subsidy Entrepreneurs: An Inquiry into firms seeking public grants
Article (in press)Publication
Halvarsson, D, Gustafsson, A. & Gustavsson Tingvall, P.
Publication year

2020

Abstract

This paper studies the incentives and characteristics of firms that apply for, and eventually receive, one or multiple governmental grants intended to stimulate innovation and growth. The analysis departs from a contest model in which entrepreneurs are free to allocate their effort between production and seeking grants. The results suggest that highly productive entrepreneurs abstain from seeking grants, moderately productive firms allocate a share of their effort to grant seeking, and low-productivity firms allocate most resources to seeking grants. Due to their efforts in seeking grants, these low-productive subsidy entrepreneurs also have a relatively high probability of receiving the grants. Using comprehensive data over grants from the three largest grant-distributing agencies in Sweden, we find concordant evidence of a negative relation between the probability of receiving a grant and firm productivity. As we go from single- to multiple-grant-supported firms, this negative relation becomes more pronounced.

Show more

Postgiro: 382621-1

|

Bankgiro: 512-6578